The Popular Drink That Reduces Liver Disease Risk

The type of drink that reduces the risk of liver disease and common liver conditions.

The type of drink that reduces the risk of liver disease and common liver conditions.

People who drink any type of coffee are less likely to develop chronic liver disease, fatty liver disease, or die from liver disease.

Drinking any type of coffee — no matter if it is caffeinated or decaf, instant or ground coffee — has been linked to lowering the odds of liver disease and related liver problems.

According to a study, drinking three or four cups of coffee will promote liver health condition and lower the risk of developing long-term liver disease and death compared to non-coffee drinkers.

The researchers analysed data from the UK Biobank on half a million people and followed them for almost 11 years to see if any of the participants developed liver disease or related liver problems.

Coffee drinkers were 21 percent less likely to develop chronic liver disease, 20 percent less likely to develop fatty liver disease, and 49 percent less likely to die from liver disease than those non-coffee drinkers.

Those who drank ground coffee (including espresso) saw the maximum effect.

Ground coffee is rich in cafestol and kahweol, which have been found to have a protective effect on the liver.

Instant coffee contains low levels of these two ingredients, however, the reduced risk was also seen in instant coffee drinkers to some extent.

This possibly indicates that besides cafestol and kahweol, other ingredients in coffee have some beneficial effects.

Dr Oliver Kennedy, the study’s first author, said:

“Coffee is widely accessible and the benefits we see from our study may mean it could offer a potential preventative treatment for chronic liver disease.

This would be especially valuable in countries with lower income and worse access to healthcare and where the burden of chronic liver disease is highest.”

The research team noted that the study’s participants were mostly white with higher socioeconomic status therefore it would be hard to generalize these findings to different populations.

The study was published in the journal BMC Public Health (Kennedy et al., 2021).

A Mental Sign of Vitamin D Deficiency

The vitamin may have a direct effect on the brain and has also been linked to Parkinson’s disease and dementia.

The vitamin may have a direct effect on the brain and has also been linked to Parkinson’s disease and dementia.

Depression can be a sign of vitamin D deficiency, recent research suggests.

Vitamin D deficiency is linked to a 75 percent higher risk of depression.

Symptoms of depression include moodiness, lack of motivation and tiredness.

Depression is also linked to physical symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, dizziness and muscle pain.

The results come from a study of almost 4,000 older adults in Ireland.

They were followed up over 4 years for any depression symptoms and vitamin D levels.

The results showed that people with vitamin D deficiency were 75 percent more likely to have depression symptoms.

Vitamin D may have a direct effect on the brain and has also been linked to Parkinson’s disease and dementia.

Dr Robert Briggs, the study’s first author, said:

“This is the largest representative and most comprehensive study of depression risk and vitamin D status in older adults ever conducted in Ireland.

Our findings will provide useful information to help inform public health policy – particularly regarding the proposition of the usefulness of vitamin D treatment/supplementation for depression.”

The link between vitamin D and depression is not confined to older adults.

One recent study found that vitamin D deficiency is linked to depressive symptoms and more negative thoughts in young women.

Dr Eamon Laird, study co-author, said:

“This study shows that vitamin D is associated with a health condition other than bone health.

What is surprising is the large effect on depression even after accounting for other control variables.

This is highly relevant for Ireland as our previous research has shown that one in eight older adults are deficient in the summer and one in four during the winter.

Moreover, only around 8% of older Irish adults report taking a vitamin D supplement.”

The study was published in the The Journal of Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine (Briggs et al., 2018).

An Irritating Sign Of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Around The Eyes

A symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency that can be irritating.

A symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency that can be irritating.

Eye-twitching or facial pain can be signs of vitamin B12 deficiency.

While the symptom is not normally painful, it can be irritating.

The twitches normally occur in one eye at a time, or sometimes below them.

Eye twitching — known to doctors as myokymia — can also be caused by stress, tiredness, allergies or dry eyes, among other things.

Other common symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiency include feeling faint, tired, experiencing muscle weakness and being constipated.

Vitamin B12 is used by the body to make red blood cells and to keep the nervous system healthy.

Certain types of people may have difficulties getting enough vitamin B12 in their diet: these include older people, those with Crohn’s disease and vegetarians.

Foods that contain good levels of vitamin B12 include liver, salmon, eggs and dairy, as well as breakfast cereals that have been fortified.

Vitamin B12 deficiency can also be treated by taking supplements.

If it remains uncorrected, vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to neuropathy, which is experienced as a tingling sensation in the legs, feet or hands.

Dr John D. England, a neurologist at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in New Orleans, said:

“People with suspected nerve problems should talk to their doctors about screening tests, especially blood glucose, vitamin B12 level and serum protein levels, since these tests can often point to common causes of neuropathy.”

Dr England continued:

“There are many people with a neuropathy who have been walking around for years without having been diagnosed and treated.

Both neurologists and people with neuropathy need to know that the appropriate choice of tests is critical to accurate diagnosis.”

The guidelines were published in the American Academy of Neurology.

A Night-Time Sign of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Around one-quarter of people could have a deficiency in vitamin B12.

Around one-quarter of people could have a deficiency in vitamin B12.

Poor sleep can be a sign of vitamin B12 deficiency, research suggests.

Deficiency in this vitamin, as well as other micronutrients, is linked to poor sleep quality and having to use medications to sleep by the study.

Researchers have found that deficiencies in niacin, magnesium, calcium and dietary fibre are all linked to short sleep.

More common signs, specifically of vitamin B12 deficiency, include pale or jaundiced skin.

This is a yellow tinge around the eyes and/or in the whites of the eyes.

Vitamin B12 deficiency has also been linked to nerve problems.

This may manifest as pins and needles or numbness, especially in the legs.

Other psychological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include problems concentrating, depression, confusion and even forgetfulness.

It can be difficult to trace these symptoms directly to vitamin B12 deficiency as they can be related to a variety of other causes.

Around one-quarter of people may have a vitamin B12 deficiency.

Adults under 65 need around 1.5 micrograms of vitamin B12 per day.

Vitamin B12 is normally acquired by the body through diet.

Foods that contain vitamin B12 include dairy, liver, salmon and eggs.

Other good sources of vitamin B12 include poultry and low-fat milk.

Fortified breakfast cereals also contain vitamin B12.

The conclusions about diet and micronutrients come from a study that analysed data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey, which regularly surveys many thousands of people in the US.

The study’s authors explain the results:

“…short sleep was significantly associated with the greatest number of nutrients; showing an inverse association with magnesium, niacin, vitamin D, calcium, and dietary fiber intake.”

The study also linked lower levels of vitamin B12 with worse sleep.

The study was published in the journal Current Developments in Nutrition (Ikonte et al., 2019).

A Physical Sign Of Vitamin D Deficiency

A variety of vitamin and mineral deficiencies have been linked to this problem.

A variety of vitamin and mineral deficiencies have been linked to this problem.

Headaches and migraines can be a sign of vitamin D deficiency, research finds.

Having an unexplained headache once a week or more could be considered a problem.

A migraine, meanwhile, is a type of severe headache in which typically one half of the head feels as though it is pulsating.

It may also be accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

Some people also experience visual disturbances before the migraine begins.

A variety of vitamin and mineral deficiencies have been linked to migraines.

This study also found that deficiencies in riboflavin (vitamin B2) and coenzyme Q10 are linked to migraines.

The conclusions come from thousands of headache patients whose vitamin levels were measured.

Vitamin D deficiency was particularly high in young men with migraines, the researchers found.

Coenzyme Q10 deficiencies, however, were more likely in young women with migraines.

The study’s authors conclude:

“Neutraceuticals have been widely used in migraine prevention.

Deficiency in vitamins may be related to the underlying pathophysiology and supplementation may help with response to treatment.

This suggests that a high percentage of pediatric migraine patients in the general population may be deficient in riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, vitamin D, and folate and when identified as deficient, may benefit from supplementation of these vitamins.”

However, it is not yet clear if supplementation will help the headaches, said Dr Suzanne Hagler, the study’s first author:

“Further studies are needed to elucidate whether vitamin supplementation is effective in migraine patients in general, and whether patients with mild deficiency are more likely to benefit from supplementation.”

The study was presented at the 2016 annual meeting of the American Headache Society (Hagler et al., 2016).

A Stressful Sign Of Omega-3 Deficiency

Low levels of an omega-3 fatty acid can cause this problem.

Low levels of an omega-3 fatty acid can cause this problem.

Poor sleep can be a sign of omega-3 deficiency, research finds.

Poor sleep can also cause cognitive and behavioural problems and general poor health.

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an omega‐3 fatty acids found in algae, fish and other seafoods and it is a major structural fat in the brain and retina of the eye.

Higher blood levels of DHA are associated with better sleep, fewer sleep disturbances and less parasomnias, including abnormal movements during sleep, nightmares and sleepwalking.

A study on a group of children with poor sleep shows that 16 weeks daily supplementation with 600 mg of DHA from algal sources had considerably restored their sleep.

It also lowered problems like sleep anxiety, resistance to bedtime, and continual waking through the night.

Children who were supplemented with omega-3 DHA had one hour more sleep and seven fewer wake episodes each night.

Low levels of DHA are associated with lower levels of melatonin, a hormone mainly produced in the brain, which regulates the sleep–wake cycle.

The sleep–wake cycle maintains sleep rhythm: leading to going to sleep regularly each night and waking up at a regular time every morning.

Professor Paul Montgomery, lead author of the study,said:

“To find clinical level sleep problems in four in ten of this general population sample is a cause for concern.

Various substances made within the body from omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have long been known to play key roles in the regulation of sleep.

For example, lower ratios of DHA have been linked with lower levels of melatonin, and that would fit with our finding that sleep problems are greater in children with lower levels of DHA in their blood.”

The balance of omega-3 DHA and omega-6 fatty acid AA (arachidonic acid) in the pineal gland of our brain is important for the regulation of melatonin production.

Increased DHA to omega-6 fatty acid AA ratios increase the secretion of melatonin and so can reduce sleep problems.

Dr Alex Richardson, study co-author, said:

“Previous studies we have published showed that blood levels of omega-3 DHA in this general population sample of 7-9 year olds were alarmingly low overall, and this could be directly related to the children’s behavior and learning.

Poor sleep could well help to explain some of those associations.”

The study was published in the Journal of Sleep Research (Montgomery et al., 2014).

A Mental Sign Of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

B12 deficiency is relatively easy to correct with a change in diet or supplementation.

B12 deficiency is relatively easy to correct with a change in diet or supplementation.

Difficulties with memory and thinking skills can be a sign of vitamin B12 deficiency, research finds.

Low levels of the vital vitamin are linked to accelerated cognitive aging.

With age, people’s brains generally work more slowly, their reasoning is not as sharp and their memory less clear.

However, people with normal vitamin B12 levels age better cognitively.

Vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease and brain shrinkage by some research.

The good news is that B12 deficiency is relatively easy to correct with a change in diet or supplementation.

Good sources of vitamin B12 include fish, poultry, eggs and low-fat milk.

Fortified breakfast cereals also contain vitamin B12.

For the study, 549 people, average age 75, were split into groups based on their vitamin B12 levels.

The results showed that being in the two lowest groups for vitamin B12 was linked to a more rapid cognitive decline over eight years.

Dr Martha Savaria Morris, the study’s first author, said:

“Men and women in the second lowest group did not fare any better in terms of cognitive decline than those with the worst vitamin B12 blood levels.

Rapid neuropsychiatric decline is a well-known consequence of severe vitamin B12 deficiency, but our findings suggest that adverse cognitive effects of low vitamin B-12 status may affect a much larger proportion of seniors than previously thought.”

People who may have difficulty getting enough vitamin B12 include vegetarians, older people and those with some digestive disorders, such as Crohn’s disease.

Dr Paul Jacques, study co-author, said:

“While we emphasize our study does not show causation, our associations raise the concern that some cognitive decline may be the result of inadequate vitamin B-12 in older adults, for whom maintaining normal blood levels can be a challenge.”

The study was published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (Morris et al., 2012).

Vitamin B12 Deficiency: An Uncomfortable Sign Around The Eyes

B12 is involved in the production of red blood cells and in maintaining the health of the nervous system.

B12 is involved in the production of red blood cells and in maintaining the health of the nervous system.

Uncomfortable, twitching muscles around the eyes can be a sign of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Twitching around the eye is scientifically called eye blepharospasm.

It can occur either around the eye or in the eye.

Similarly, pins and needles and burning sensations at the extremities can also be signs of a vitamin B12 deficiency.

That is because these areas are more sensitive to the touch.

B12 is involved in the production of red blood cells and in maintaining the health of the nervous system.

A prolonged lack of the vitamin can lead to a breakdown in the sheath that surrounds the nerves, which is what leads to twitches and strange sensations.

Other signs of a vitamin B12 deficiency include:

  • weight loss,
  • pale skin,
  • fatigue,
  • and a sore red tongue.

A sore tongue is known as ‘glossitis’ and appears as an inflammation of the tongue’s surface, which may be accompanied by mouth ulcers.

However, it is relatively uncommon that eye twitching is caused by vitamin D deficiency.

Levels of vitamin B12 can be particularly low in vegetarians and vegans as plants do not contain sufficient levels of the nutrient.

Vegetarians who eat dairy products, however, should obtain sufficient levels that way.

Older people are at greater risk of vitamin B12 deficiency as with age the body becomes less able to absorb it.

Treating vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 is naturally found in many foods including meat, fish, eggs and dairy.

Eating some or all of these foods will usually provide a sufficient quantity of the vitamin.

The usual alternative is to take vitamin B12 supplements.

For those who cannot absorb the supplements, it is possible to get a B12 injection.

Injections are usually given six times over 14 days.


2 Supplements That Lower Heart Disease And Cancer Risk Significantly

A high levels of triglycerides in your blood can cause atherosclerosis, heart disease, heart attack and stroke.

A high levels of triglycerides in your blood can cause atherosclerosis, heart disease, heart attack and stroke.

An omega-3 fish oil supplement can help prevent heart-related diseases by decreasing triglyceride levels, research finds.

Just 4 grams daily of omega-3 supplementation taken with food either as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or a combination of EPA + DHA can lower triglycerides up to 30 percent.

In addition, another study has found that vitamin D supplementation can significantly lower the number of deaths caused by different types of cancer.

Dr Ann Skulas-Ray, the first author the scientific review, said:

“From our review of the evidence from 17 randomized, controlled clinical trials on high triglyceride levels, we concluded that treatment with 4 grams daily of any of the available prescription choices is effective and can be used safely in conjunction with statin medicines that lower cholesterol.”

Triglycerides are fats that are found in the blood and elevated levels of this these fats causes a build up inside the arteries.

A level of 200 mg/dL or greater of triglycerides will cause narrowing of the arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis, increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke.

If the level of triglycerides goes above 500 mg/dL, it can cause inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).

Fish is the main source of omega-3 fatty acids — the American Heart Association recommends eating at least 2 servings of oily fish (fatty fish) per week.

Salmon, trout, herring, pilchards, sardines, anchovies, mackerel, sprats and albacore tuna are all good source of omega-3 fatty acids.

Supplementation with EPA in combination with a statin drug in people with high triglycerides has been shown to lower cardiovascular related incidents such as heart attack, stroke and cardiovascular death by 25 percent.

However, the review found that omega-3 fatty acid medication can reduce triglyceride levels effectively whether or not people are taking statins.

Nearly 25 percent of US adults have borderline high triglycerides, a level above 150 mg/dL.

One in 5 Americans has high levels of triglycerides and due to obesity and diabetes the rate is increasing rapidly.

We obtain triglycerides from different foods and they are stored in the liver or in fat cells and they are broken down by the liver to supply energy.

Excess eating will increase the storage of triglycerides throughout the body, including the liver, leading to conditions such as fatty liver disease.

High-fat foods, processed foods, alcohol, sugary products and refined carbohydrates can all elevate triglyceride levels.

Chips, margarine, fried foods, popcorn, cookies, cakes, pastries, meat, sugary cereals, pizza, and pies are example of foods high in triglycerides.

Dr Skulas-Ray pointed out:

“Dietary supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids are not regulated by the FDA.

They should not be used in place of prescription medication for the long-term management of high triglycerides.”

The study was published in Circulation (Skulas-Ray et al., 2019).

This Common Supplement Fights Cognitive Decline

This ubiquitous supplement may improve memory and abstract reasoning.

This ubiquitous supplement may improve memory and abstract reasoning.

Omega-3 fatty acids may enhance brain function in middle age, research finds.

Among over 2,000 people in the study, those with higher concentrations of omega-3 in their blood had a range of cognitive advantages:

  • Larger hippocampi: a brain structure central to learning and memory.
  • Better abstract reasoning skills: the ability to think logically.
  • Carriers of the APOE4 gene, who are at greater genetic risk of dementia, had fewer signs of small-vessel disease.

People in the study were in their 40s and 50s, explained Dr Claudia Satizabal, the study’s first author:

“Studies have looked at this association in older populations.

The new contribution here is that, even at younger ages, if you have a diet that includes some omega-3 fatty acids, you are already protecting your brain for most of the indicators of brain aging that we see at middle age.”

Omega-3 levels were calculated by adding together levels of DHA and EPA.

EPA and DHA, two of the three main fatty acids, are sometimes known as the marine omega-3s as they come mainly from fish.

What makes omega-3 fatty acids so important in the diet is that the body cannot make them but has to get them from food.

Dr Debora Melo van Lent, study co-author, said:

“Omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA are key micronutrients that enhance and protect the brain.

Our study is one of the first to observe this effect in a younger population.

More studies in this age group are needed.”

In the study, people were divided into groups based on their levels of omega-3 fatty acids, Dr Satizabal said:

“We saw the worst outcomes in the people who had the lowest consumption of omega-3s.

So, that is something interesting.

Although the more omega-3 the more benefits for the brain, you just need to eat some to see benefits.”

It is not yet known exactly why omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for the brain.

It may be because they are important in the building of neurons and that they have anti-inflammatory properties.

Dr Satizabal said:

“It’s complex.

We don’t understand everything yet, but we show that, somehow, if you increase your consumption of omega-3s even by a little bit, you are protecting your brain.”

Fatty acids and dementia

Whether or not omega-3 fatty acids help prevent dementia continues to be controversial.

However, omega-3 has been linked to maintaining IQ levels with age and even reducing anxiety.

Other research has suggested that omega-3 needs to be combined with B vitamins to help the body deal with mental decline.

Still further studies have found:

→ The dietary change with some of the best evidence for keeping the brain healthy is the MIND diet.

The study was published in the journal Neurology (Satizabal et al., 2022).