Two of the personality traits that are strongly linked to being a psychopath are being disagreeable and low in conscientiousness, a study finds.
People who are not conscientious are disorganised, careless, irresponsible and do not follow through on their obligations.
People like this also find it hard to resist temptation.
Disagreeable people tend to be unfriendly, cold and not tactful — rarely taking into account other people’s feelings.
Psychopaths are particularly low on three critical aspects of agreeableness:
- They are not straightforward: psychopaths are deceitful and manipulative.
- They are not compliant: psychopaths have strong heads, are aggressive, antagonistic and quarrelsome.
- They are not modest: psychopaths are arrogant, conceited, proud and vain.
Another personality trait psychopaths tend to have is high neuroticism.
They tend to be:
- Angry and hostile: psychopaths get upset very easily.
- Impulsive: psychopaths cannot resist temptations and may overeat or indulge themselves in other ways.
Psychopaths also show one aspect of high extraversion, which is that they seek out excitement.
However, unlike many extraverts they are not warm — instead they are interpersonally cold and emotionless.
Summing up the personality of a psychopath, the study’s authors write:
“Behaviourally, the psychopath is considered as an impulsive risk-taker involved in a variety of criminal activities.
Interpersonally, the psychopath has been described as grandiose, egocentric, manipulative, forceful and cold-hearted.
Affectively, the psychopath shows shallow emotions, is unable to maintain close relationships, and lacks empathy, anxiety and remorse.”
The conclusions come from collecting together data from 83 different sources including over 20,000 people across multiple studies.
Both psychopaths and people with antisocial personality disorder were included in the study.
Antisocial personality disorder is very similar to psychopathy, although the researchers found some nuances:
“…low levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were substantive features of both disorders, but psychopathy was characterized by a significantly lower level of Agreeableness and lower scores on Straightforwardness, Compliance and Modesty.
Lower levels of Modesty (A5) are in line with the grandiosity and arrogance reflected in psychopathy descriptions.”
The study was published in the European Journal of Personality (Decuyper et al., 2009).