Women are rated by others as being just as effective leaders as men, and sometimes they are rated more highly, according to a new review of the research.
The conclusions are based on data from tens of thousands of leaders in studies that have been conducted over almost fifty years (Paustian-Underdahl et al., 2014).
However, when men and women each rated their own leadership, men consistently rated themselves more highly than women rated themselves.
However, when other people’s ratings were taken into account, this difference disappeared.
The study’s lead researcher, Samantha C. Paustian-Underdahl, explained:
“When all leadership contexts are considered, men and women do not differ in perceived leadership effectiveness.
As more women have entered into and succeeded in leadership positions, it is likely that people’s stereotypes associating leadership with masculinity have been dissolving slowly over time.”
In the past women were not seen as having the right qualities for leadership:
“Women are typically described and expected to be more communal, relations-oriented and nurturing than men, whereas men are believed and expected to be more agentic, assertive and independent than women.
As organizations have become fast-paced, globalized environments, some organizational scholars have proposed that a more feminine style of leadership is needed to emphasize the participative and open communication needed for success.” (Paustian-Underdahl et al., 2014).
In certain types of positions women were rated by others as more effective leaders than men:
- Business and educational organizations.
- Middle management.
- Senior-level management positions.
This might be due to a “double standard of competence,” in that women have to be twice as good as men to get the top position.
“These findings are surprising given that men on average continue to be paid more and advance into higher managerial levels than women.”
About the author
Psychologist, Jeremy Dean, PhD is the founder and author of PsyBlog. He holds a doctorate in psychology from University College London and two other advanced degrees in psychology.
He has been writing about scientific research on PsyBlog since 2004. He is also the author of the book “Making Habits, Breaking Habits” (Da Capo, 2003) and several ebooks:
- Accept Yourself: How to feel a profound sense of warmth and self-compassion
- The Anxiety Plan: 42 Strategies For Worry, Phobias, OCD and Panic
- Spark: 17 Steps That Will Boost Your Motivation For Anything
- Activate: How To Find Joy Again By Changing What You Do
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