Miller’s Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two In Psychology

The magic number 7 plus or minus 2 in psychology refers to the fact that we can fit about seven pieces of information into our short-term memories.

magical number seven

The magic number 7 plus or minus 2 in psychology refers to the fact that we can fit about seven pieces of information into our short-term memories.

It is sometimes said human beings are nothing more than a collection of memories.

Memories for people, events, places, sounds and sights.

Our whole world is funnelled in through our memories. In fact, they may be our most prized possessions.

The study of memory has always been central to psychology – this article describes one of its most influential findings.

The title of this article comes from a 1956 study by the psychologist George A. Miller in which he describes the capacity of human memory (Miller, 1956).

The article’s opening has become famous amongst historians of psychology:

“My problem is that I have been persecuted by an integer.

For seven years this number has followed me around, has intruded in my most private data, and has assaulted me from the pages of our most public journals.

This number assumes a variety of disguises, being sometimes a little larger and sometimes a little smaller than usual, but never changing so much as to be unrecognizable.”

The magical number seven (plus or minus 2)

It’s not just Miller who was persecuted by this number though, it’s all of us.

What this magical number represents – 7 plus or minus 2 – is the number of items we can hold in our short-term memory.

So, while most people can generally hold around seven numbers in mind for a short period, almost everyone finds it difficult to hold ten digits in mind.

Remember that memory is a slippery concept: short-term memory for psychologists refers to things that are currently being used by our brains right now.

For example, as you’re reading this post the words you’ve read go into short-term memory for a very short period, you extract some meaning (hopefully) and then the meaning is either stored or discarded.

You’ll probably still have some faint memory of this article tomorrow, but won’t be able to remember most of the actual words.

Disputing the magical number seven

All sorts of experiments and theories have followed disputing the magical number seven approach to memory.

More recent studies have, for example, shown how we put items together in order to ‘chunk’ data.

Still, the basic concept that our immediate short-term memory is relatively limited is still valid.

If you think seven isn’t much then be thankful you’re not a six-month-old infant.

Recent research suggests they can only hold one thing in short-term memory (Kaldy & Leslie, 2005).

Poor little chaps — it explains a lot though.


Author: Jeremy Dean

Psychologist, Jeremy Dean, PhD is the founder and author of PsyBlog. He holds a doctorate in psychology from University College London and two other advanced degrees in psychology. He has been writing about scientific research on PsyBlog since 2004. He is also the author of the book "Making Habits, Breaking Habits" (Da Capo, 2013) and several ebooks.

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